In part 1 of this topic we talked about Phenolphthalein, a commonly used chemical in trap cases, in great length. In the part 2 of Forensic Analysis of Chemicals in Trap Cases, we will study about another powder, Anthracene, that is used in trap cases. We will also see some of the legal aspects and case studies related to trap cases.
- Anthracene powder is also used for trapping cases to overcome the problem of fading color as it does not have such issue of colour fading.
- Also it has advantage due to its fluorescence property.
- The hands/clothes of the suspect can be immediately examined under ultra violet light, violet/blue fluorescence and it can be clearly perceived. This proves direct contact of the suspect with currency notes.
- Pure anthracene shows blue fluorescence but impure anthracene shows yellow to green fluorescence due to the presence of tetracene, naphthacene etc.
- The hands/object can be clean with ethyl alcohol for forensic examination.
Anthracene is known to be a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with three benzene rings fused together. It is a constituent of coal tar. Anthracene is colorless but shows blue (400-500 nm)fluorescence under ultraviolet light. Anthracene is a white to yellow solid with a weak aromatic odor. It sinks in water.
Properties of Anthracene
|2||Molar mass||178.234 g.mol-1|
|6.||Melting point||2160 C at 760 mmHg|
|7.||Boiling point||341.30 C at 760 mmHg|
|8.||Solubility in water||0.022 mg/L [ 00C]|
|9.||Solubility in other solvents||Soluble in alcohol, ethanol, methanol,hexane,toluene.|
|10.||UV- VIS (λmax)||345.6 nm & 363.2nm|
Examination of Anthracene
- UV Examination: it shows violet/ blue/ green color fluorescence.
- Thin layer chromatography – Stationary phase: silica gel G
Mobile phase: heptane:hexane
- Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC):
Detector : Flame ionization
Column : S S column 1/8 inch dia. 2 meter length
Packing : 10% S E 30 80/100 chromosorb
Carrier Gas: Nitrogen
Flow rate : 25 ml/min
Injector temperature : 2500C
Column temperature : 2200C Isothermal
Detector temperature: 2500C
Sample preparation : In ethanol
Sample Collection In Case of Anthracene
Anthracene powder is rarely used in trap cases these days but its advantage is that it does not
pose any problem of colour fading (like in case of phenolphthalein)and its fluorescence property. The hands/clothes of the suspect can be immediately examined under ultra violet light,
violet/blue fluorescence and it can be clearly detected. This proves direct contact of the
suspect with currency notes.
The hands/object can be washed with ethanol for the forensic examination.
Legal aspects regarding Bribe and Corruption
It is mentioned in ‘Prevention of Corruption Actof 1988’
- For accepting bribe, a case is registered under Sections 7, 11, 13(1) (a) and 13(1) (b) of PCAct, 1988.
Section 7: Public servant taking gratification other than legal remuneration in respect of anofficial act.
Section 11: Public servant obtaining valuable things, without consideration from a person concerned in proceeding or business transacted by such public servant.
Section 13(1) (a): A public servant is said to commit the offence of criminal misconduct ifhe habitually accepts or obtains or agrees to accept or attempts to obtain from any person forhimself or for any other person any gratification other than legal remuneration as a motive orreward such as is mentioned in Section 7 of the PC Act.
Section 13(1) (b): A public servant is said to commit the offence of criminal misconduct if he habitually accepts or obtains or agrees to accept or attempts to obtain from any person for himself or for any other person, any valuable thing without consideration or for a consideration which he knows to be inadequate from any person whom he knows to have been, or to be,or to be likely to be concerned in any proceeding or business transacted or about to be transacted by him, or having any connection with the official functions of himself or of any public servant to whom he is subordinate, or from any person whom he knows to be interested in or related to the person so concerned.
- Against a bribe giver, the case can be registered under Section 12 of PC Act, 1988.
Section 12: (Reverse trap): Punishment for abetment of offences defined in Section 7 or 11.
CBI traps and Arrests Two Senior Forest officers in graft case- March 18, 2019
The CBI arrested two Indian Forest Service officials for allegedly bribing an official in the Ministry of Environment & Forest for getting approval for upgrading some work on a previous date. In this particular case ABC paid Rs 10,000 to the an official on behalf of XYZ to another ministry official who complained to his superior about the bribe. XYZ is also alleged to have paid another Rs 10,000 to the Environment Ministry official.
CBI Arrests an Inspector of Central GST, Chief Vigilance Inspector of RDSO – May 16, 2020
The CBI arrested an Inspector, E-way Bill Team-II, Central GST, Noida (Uttar Pradesh) for demanding and accepting a bribe of Rs. 30,000/- from the complainant. A case was registered against the accused on a complaint alleging that the accused demanded a bribe of Rs. 30,000/- from the complainant for release of his vehicle containing scrap which had been detained by the accused in Noida. CBI laid a trap and caught the accused red handed while demanding and accepting a bribe of Rs. 30,000/- from the complainant.
Delhi policeman, lawyer caught by CBI for demanding bribe – March, 2020
The CBI arrested a Delhi Police constable and a lawyer for demanding a bribe of Rs one lakh in lieu of dropping a case against an accused.
Note – You can read more case studies on News Bulletin published by CBI . Click on the link .
Some Important Questions
- Who provides the money used for laying the trap?
The money has to be provided by the complainant and none else.
- What happens to the money of the complainant provided for laying trap?
Since it is an important piece of evidence against the accused, it is used in the court during trail. It is seized by CBI and put up in the court along with the charge sheet. After completion of trial, court orders return of the money to the complainant. The money is, therefore, eventually returned to the complainant after completion of the trial.
Drop in your comments and questions if any. Happy Reading 🙂